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Wrist watch - classification, characteristics, functions

Of course, in the era of smart digital devices, you don't need to wear a watch. But why don't even those who can afford the most advanced and fashionable mobile gadget give up their wristwatches? Probably because a watch is not a trivial measuring device, but a stylish, status accessory, an important detail that forms an image.
However, choosing the right model is not an easy task. After all, the windows display a huge, confusing variety of watches, with different mechanisms inside, technical characteristics, additional functions.

watch's types

General classification of wristwatches

Wristwatches are divided, firstly, into men's and women's. However, there are also unisex watches, as well as for children.
Secondly, wrist watch devices are divided into:

Energy source classification

Mechanical

Work from the energy of a wound spring. The advantage of such watches is that they do not require power sources, but only manual eyeliner. In addition, there are self-winding watches: a special rotor adjusts the mechanism by itself when the owner moves his hand. The accuracy of mechanical instruments is determined by the quality and quantity of stones that act as bearings for the axles of the movement. Once real rubies were used for these purposes, but today artificially grown crystals. The punctuality of the watch also depends on the material from which the gears are machined.

Quartz watch

In such watches the quartz resonator acts as the basic element that sets the hands in motion. This watch does not need to be manually wound, but requires replacement of the battery, which on average lasts 2-3 years. A separate subspecies is the newest, quartz watch with a solar mini-battery that works for 10-15 years. Quartz watches are more accurate than their mechanical counterparts. And also lighter, less bulky, which is why they are popular among women.

Electronic watch

Electronic watch is a kind of quartz watch. The only difference is the display, on which the time is displayed. Kinetic watch Kinetic is a relatively recent invention. The movement, called by the watchmakers.

Kinetic watch

Kinetic is a relatively recent invention. The movement, called by the watchmakers Kinetic, is a symbiosis of traditional and quartz watches. It is brought into working condition by "extraneous"energy: from the movements of the owner or sunlight. A battery with a service life of 10-15 years is built into such a product.

Smart watch (watch phone)

This is a kind of electronic wrist device - a computerized clock that, in addition to the main task, performs some of the functions of a communicator. With the  smartwatches you can answer SMS messages, emails and calls.

Display classification

The dial marking, if it is a mechanical watch, consists of Arabic or Roman numerals. Or from abstract labels, which can be seen on designer items. Hands most often "work"together, but there are also such devices, the second hand of which is not built into a single dial, but makes circles in a separate, own one.

Additional properties

Watches differ from each other in terms of their "personal"characteristics. For example, they can be with an anti-reflective coating on the dial.

Water Resistant

WR on the case. Impermeability is achieved due to special seals. In addition, such a device, most often, has a more durable, tempered glass and case. The water resistance of watches is of five classes, and to measure it, different manufacturers use different units - atmospheres, bars, meters.

Other functions of watch movements

Automatic winding. On the one hand, it is convenient. On the other hand, such watches are much heavier and more massive, and therefore self-winding is rarely found in women's counterparts.
An altimeter is a built-in barometric or, much more rarely, satellite-type instrument that determines altitude.
Atomic synchronization or radio synchronization is a module that suppresses radio signals of the exact time and corrects the movement of the mechanism.
An alarm clock is either a mechanical buzzer, or a speaker, or a digital system, depending on which watch - mechanical, quartz or electronic - has a built-in device. Often, in addition to the alarm clock, the watch is equipped with a vibration reminder.
Perpetual calendar - such a watch is able to provide complete information not only about leap years and dates according to the Gregorian or Hebrew chronology. But tell about the phases of the moon.
Built-in memory. Smart watches also serve as flash drives, allowing you to store and transfer not very large arrays of information.
Second time zone. On the dial of such a device there is a scale, which indicates the main cities in different time zones. By pressing a button or turning a ring, you can find out what time it is on another continent, which is very useful during flights.
Depth gauge - a tool that determines depth, can be based on different physical principles, but, according to experts, the most accurate is a membrane one. Power reserve indicator - it is complemented by classic pendulum instruments. The device reminds you to start the mechanism.
Compass - can be built into either the case or the bracelet.
Countdown timer is a seconds countdown tool that allows you to calculate intervals as accurately as possible.
Backlight. The choice is wide: it can be luminescent, LED, light-accumulative or tritium. In the first case, the backlight of the dial is turned on for a few seconds by pressing a button. The LEDs light up by themselves when natural light becomes dim. Light accumulative type - a special composition based on zinc or strontium, which covers the numbers, divisions and arrows. This backlight requires periodic recharging. Tritium backlighting is a mini-flask filled with a mixture of gas and super heavy hydrogen. Despite the fact that a radioactive element is used, the doses of its radiation are safe for health and are completely absorbed by the coating of the dial.
Heart rate monitor. Useful for those who monitor health, because it counts the heart rate.
Stopwatch and chronograph. The first instrument is a module in which the second hand is built into the clockwork and is one with it. And the chronograph is an independent mini-device that is easy to operate using a button. However, there are split-chronographs with 2-3 buttons and seconds hands, through which you can control several related phenomena of different duration.
GPS system - these watches contain digital maps that allow you to determine the longitude and latitude, the exact location, and calculate the optimal route. Interestingly, watches with a GPS navigator are produced not only for men and women. But also for children, which helps them to navigate, do not get lost.
The tachymeter is a fixed scale applied to the bezel of a chronograph watch. Its purpose is to calculate the speed of the path based on time. It is brought into working condition by pressing a button.
Thermometer - sensors that measure air temperature.
Pedometer. Built-in tool that calculates the distance traveled in steps over a given period of time.

Types of watches by the type of case

Of course, watches are made from different raw materials. For example, the dial is covered: The case of a watch mechanism is also made from a variety of materials.
Plastic watch. The case made of special plastics is not an indication that the model is cheap or less reliable. Strong plastic is even used for the production of sports equipment. In addition, such a watch is the lightest, most comfortable and good for constant wearing.
Alloy. They are made from a porous alloy of aluminum and zinc, saturated with gases. Alloy watches are almost as light as plastic ones, but more durable and more expensive.
Brass - the body is made of this alloy containing copper, zinc and other elements, one of the most durable and reliable. But alas, it is prone to oxidation. Steel is a big plus of this material in its hypoallergenic. The stainless steel body looks solid, presentable, has a long service life, and is not afraid of corrosion.
Titanium watches are still rare. But this is perhaps the most durable material, more precisely, an alloy containing titanium. Its feature is increased comfort, because titanium instantly adjusts to body temperature.
Gold. It should be noted that this is also an alloy, since gold without impurities is an excessively ductile material. The additives make gold not only harder, but also give it different shades - yellow, reddish, pink, white. The most expensive jewelry watches are made of gold with platinum or palladium.